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Glossary

  
Definition
Affirmative Action Program
A federal government program designed to achieve equal employment opportunities by specifying actions, policies and procedures that must be followed by employers/contractors who bid on federal government contracts under certain designated laws and executive orders.
American Community Survey (ACS)
ACS is a nationwide survey administered by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  ACS provides communities with reliable and timely demographic, housing, social, and economic data and provides information for states and local areas to use in planning and development.
Average Weekly Wages
Total quarterly wages divided by average employment and then divided by 13 (weeks per quarter).
Benchmarking
Benchmarking is the process of updating and improving accuracy in estimation. Most federal program statistics are estimated using a sample of the total universe. As more complete data become available, the statistics are re-estimated to reflect more accurate information. The benchmark is considered to be more accurate than estimates yet is also generally more dated information.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
BLS is part of the U.S. Department of Labor and is the federal government’s principal data-gathering agency in the field of labor economics, particularly with respect to the collection and analysis of data on the labor force, employment and unemployment, hours of work, wages and other compensation, prices, living conditions, labor-management relations, productivity, technological developments, occupational safety and health, etc. Practically all of the data BLS collects are supplied voluntarily by workers, businesses, and government agencies.
Civilian Labor Force (CLF)
Persons aged 16 and older who are not institutionalized (prisons, mental facilities, nursing homes) or on active military duty and are either employed or unemployed.
Civilian Noninstitutional Population
Persons aged 16 and older residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia who are not inmates of institutions, e.g. penal and mental facilities and homes for the aged, and who are not on active military duty.
Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP)
CIP classifies and identifies educational and training fields of study. CIP was originally developed by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics.
Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act (CIPSEA)
CIPSEA is the federal law which protects information collected for statistical purposes by federal statistical agencies and their state cooperative partners.
Confidentiality
Laws and guidelines established to protect individual employers. We cannot release statistics where three or fewer employers are included in the industry segment or if one employer represents 80% or more of the workers in the industry segment.
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
Measures the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a representative market basket of consumer goods and services.
Continued Claims
The number of weeks that claimants are requesting payment of unemployment benefits.  These claims include “waiting weeks” which do not receive payment and claims that are subsequently denied benefits.
Current Employment Statistics (CES)
Federal-state cooperative program that produces a monthly count of jobs by industry.
Current Population Survey (CPS)
Monthly household survey of the population of the United States administered by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  CPS is the data source for the national estimates of the labor force composition.
Discouraged Workers
Persons not in the labor force who want and are available for a job and who have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months, but who are not currently looking because they believe there are no jobs available or there are none for which they would qualify.  Discouraged workers are not counted as unemployed.
Duration of Unemployment
The length of time in weeks that an unemployed person has been looking for work.
Educational Attainment
The highest academic diploma or degree, or level of academic work towards a diploma or degree, an individual has completed.
Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC)
A temporary, federally-funded extension of unemployment benefits for those who have exhausted their Regular UC benefits.
Employed/Employment
Persons aged 16 and older who (a) did any work as paid employees, worked in their own business or profession or on their own farm, or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in an enterprise operated by a member of their family, or (b) were not working but who had jobs from which they were temporarily absent. Each employed person is counted only once, even if he or she holds more than one job.
Employer
Represents a business entity and may consist of one or more establishments.
Employment and Training Administration (ETA)
As part of the U.S. Department of Labor, ETA administers federal government job training and worker dislocation programs, federal grants to states for public employment service programs, and unemployment insurance benefits. Program services are primarily provided through state and local workforce development systems.
Employment to Population Ratio
The proportion of the civilian non-institutional population aged 16+ years that is employed.
Establishment
Represents a single economic unit such as a mine, factory, or store engaged in one, or predominantly one, activity.
Exhaustees
The count of individuals who have drawn the maximum entitled amount of benefits.
Extended Benefits (EB)
A temporary extension of unemployment benefits available to individuals who have exhausted their Regular UC benefits and any temporary EUC.
Full-time Employment
Definitions can vary but generally full-time employment includes those who work at least 35 hours per week.
High Priority Occupations (HPOs)
Occupations that are considered economically significant to the commonwealth or regions of the commonwealth.  As such, these occupations often provide opportunities for state or local education and training support.
Individual Payments
The distinct count of individuals who received unemployment compensation benefits.
Industries of Interest
Industries of Interest (IOIs) highlight growing or declining industries in the state.  IOIs are those industries with exceptional growth or decline over the most recent five calendar quarters as determined through analyzing employer data, New Hires data, and Help Wanted online job postings.
Industry
A group of establishments that produce similar products or provide similar services. 
Industry Cluster
A group of industries that are closely linked by common product markets, labor pools, similar technologies, supplier chains and/or other economic ties.
Initial Claims
The count of notices of unemployment requesting a determination of eligibility and entitlement for UC benefits.
Job Skills
Job skills are personal abilities that help workers carry out job-related tasks.
Jobs
The total number of persons on establishment payrolls employed full or part time.  Persons on the payroll of more than one establishment are counted in each establishment.
Labor Force
All persons classified as employed or unemployed.
Labor Force Participation Rate
The labor force divided by the civilian non-institutional population.
Labor Market Area (LMA)
An economically integrated geographical unit within which workers may readily change jobs without changing their place of residence.
Labor Market Information (LMI)
All quantitative or qualitative data and analysis related to employment and the workforce.
Labor Surplus Area
Civil jurisdiction where the average unemployment rate is at least 1.2 times the average unemployment rate for all states or its unemployment rate during the previous two calendar years was 10 percent or more.
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS)
Federal-State cooperative program measuring employment and unemployment by place of residence.  LAUS does not produce demographic estimates.
Local Employment Dynamics (LED)
LED is a voluntary partnership between state labor market information agencies and the U.S. Bureau of the Census (Census).  States supply quarterly unemployment insurance wage records and business establishment records.  Census merges the data with other records, incorporates confidentiality protections, and compiles the information for dissemination to states.  LED is a subset of the LEHD program.
Location Quotient (LQ)
LQ is a measure of the employment share of an industry in a particular area to the employment share in a reference area.  LQs allow for comparison of how concentrated an industry’s employment in an area is to that of the country overall and, by extension, to other areas.  If an LQ is equal to 1, then the industry has the same share of its local area employment as it does in the reference area; an LQ greater than 1 indicates an industry with a greater share of the local area employment (more concentrated) than is the case in the reference area; and an LQ less than 1 indicates a local industry with a lesser share (less concentrated) than that of the reference area.
Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD)
LEHD is a U.S. Bureau of the Census program that combines federal and state administrative data on employers and employees with core Census data and surveys.
Long-term Unemployed
Persons who have been unemployed for greater than 26 weeks.
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
A geographic entity defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget for use by federal statistical agencies based on the concept of a core area with a large population nucleus plus adjacent communities having a high degree of economic and social integration with that core. Current qualification of an MSA requires the presence of a city with 50,000 or more inhabitants or the presence of an Urbanized Area (UA) and a total population of at least 100,000.
Micropolitan Statistical Area (mSA)
A new set of statistical areas with at least one urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 population plus an adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.
Minor Civil Division (MCD)
A governmental unit that is the primary governmental or administrative division of a county or statistically equivalent entity. In Pennsylvania, an MCD is usually a town, city, borough or township.
New Hire Reporting Program
National program created in 1996 to facilitate the collection of court-ordered child support payments from non-custodial parents and subsequent payment to custodial parents regardless of the state of residence of either entity.
New Hires by Industry Data
Statistical report highlighting which industries are hiring.  The source of the data is Pennsylvania’s New Hire Reporting Program.
Nonfarm Jobs
The total number of persons on establishment payrolls employed full or part time excluding proprietors, self-employed, unpaid family or volunteer workers, farm workers, and domestic workers.  Government employment covers only civilian employees.  Persons on the payroll of more than one establishment are counted in each establishment.
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
NAICS uses a six-digit, hierarchical coding system to classify all economic activity.  The NAICS hierarchical structure allows greater coding flexibility than the four-digit structure of the Standard Industry Classification (SIC) code. 
Occupation
Typically a set of activities or tasks that employees receive wages to perform.
Occupational Employment Statistics (OES)
Federal-state cooperative program that produces an estimate of the volume of occupations and wages associated with each.
Occupational Illness
An abnormal condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to factors associated with employment. It includes acute and chronic illnesses or diseases which may be caused by inhalation, absorption, ingestion, or direct contact.
Occupational Injury
An injury such as a cut, fracture, sprain, amputation, etc., which results from a work-related event or from a single instantaneous exposure in the work environment.
Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS)
Defines many of the data elements—such as nature, part, event, and source—that are used in the production of safety and health statistics by BLS.
Part Time for Economic Reasons
Persons who would like to work full time but were working part time because of an economic reason such as decreased working hours or they were unable to find full-time jobs.
Part-time Employment
Definitions can vary but generally part-time employment includes those who work at least one but fewer than 35 hours per week.
Prevailing Wage
The prevailing wage is a legal term that applies only to a limited range of occupations engaged in public works projects. Prevailing wages are established by the Department of Labor & Industry for each trade and occupation employed in public works projects. They are established separately for each county and are reflective of local wage conditions.
Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages (QCEW)
Federal-state cooperative program that produces a universal count of employment and wage information for workers covered by Pennsylvania’s Unemployment Compensation law and Federal workers covered by the Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) program.  Excluded are members of the armed forces, the self-employed, proprietors, domestic workers, unpaid family workers, and railroad workers.  Wages represent total compensation paid during the calendar quarter regardless of when services were performed and may include pay for vacation and other paid leave, bonuses, stock options, tips, the cash value of meals and lodging.
Recordable Injuries and Illnesses
Includes work-related injuries and illnesses that result in one or more of the following: death, loss of consciousness, days away from work, restricted work activity or job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, significant work-related injuries or illnesses that are diagnosed by a physician or other licensed heath care professional.  Additional criteria include any needle-stick injury or cut from a sharp object that is contaminated with another person's blood or other potentially infectious material, any case requiring an employee to be medically removed under the requirements of an OSHA health standard, and tuberculosis infection as evidenced by a positive skin test or diagnosis by a physician or other licensed health care professional after exposure to a known case of active tuberculosis.
Regular Unemployment
Provides up to 26 weeks of benefits.
Seasonal Adjustment
Seasonal adjustment removes the change in employment that is due to normal seasonal hiring or layoffs (holidays, weather, etc.) thus leaving an over-the-month change that reflects only employment changes due to trend and irregular movements.
Staffing Pattern
Data that shows the proportional distribution of occupations within an industry.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
Four-digit codes created by the U.S. government to standardize and categorize business activities.  SIC codes were replaced in 1997 by the six-digit North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code.
Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
Six-digit code to standardize and categorize the knowledge, skills, abilities, work conditions, minimum education and training level, etc. necessary to perform a specific function or series of tasks.
Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII)
Federal-state cooperative program that is designed to provide an estimate of the number of work related injuries and illnesses and a measure of the frequency at which they occur.
Turnover
Separation of an employee from an establishment.
Turnover Rate
Monthly - The number of total separations during the month divided by the number of employees who worked during or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Annual - The number of total separations for the year divided by average monthly employment for the year.
Underemployment Rate (U6)
The number of the unemployed plus those people working part time who would like full-time jobs plus those who have dropped out of the labor market entirely and still want a job divided by the labor force plus those who have dropped out of the labor market entirely and still want a job.
Unemployed/Unemployment
All persons aged 16 years and older who had no employment, were available to work, and had made specific efforts to find employment.  Includes persons who were waiting to be recalled to jobs from which they had been laid off.
Unemployment Compensation (UC)
The federal-state unemployment compensation program provides unemployment benefits to eligible workers who are unemployed through no fault of their own and meet other eligibility requirements of state law.
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE)
Program providing benefits for eligible unemployed former civilian Federal employees.
Unemployment Insurance (UI)
May be used interchangeably with unemployment compensation.
Unemployment Rate
The number of unemployed divided by the labor force.
Workers’ Compensation (WC)
Provides for medical expenses and in the event one is unable to work, wage-loss compensation benefits until a return to work is possible.  Benefits for work-related deaths are paid to dependent survivors.
Workforce Data Quality Initiative (WDQI/PA DataShare)
WDQI (now PA DataShare) is an inter-agency longitudinal database among the Department of Labor & Industry and other state agencies which integrates program participant data for the purposes of reporting employment outcomes and identifying shared program participants.
Workforce Development Area (WDA)
A labor market area that is usually a group of contiguous counties where employment, training, and educational services are provided as established under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act to provide services for dislocated workers and other eligible individuals.
Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA)
Federal act passed in 2014 designed to help job seekers access employment, education, training, and support services to succeed in the labor market and to match employers with the skilled workers they need to compete in the global economy. WIOA ensures that employment and training services provided by the core programs of employment services, workforce development, adult education, and vocational rehabilitation activities are coordinated and complementary so that job seekers acquire skills and credentials that meet employers' needs.
Workforce Investment Act (WIA)
Federal act passed in 1998 that reformed federal job training programs and created a new, comprehensive workforce investment system intended to help Americans access the tools they need to manage their careers through information and high quality services, and to help U.S. companies find skilled workers. WIA was superseded by the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA).
Workforce Investment Area (WIA)
A labor market area that is usually a group of contiguous counties, where employment, training and educational services are provided as established under the Workforce Investment Act to provide services for dislocated workers and other eligible individuals.
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